Right now, as we speak, something freaky, mind-boggling, unbelievable (insert your own adjective here) is taking place within a circular tunnel buried underneath France and Switzerland. And it’s entirely possible that you’ve never heard a word about it.
The tunnel, which is 17 miles in circumference and lies some 330 feet below the ground, holds the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, for short), the largest machine ever built (as in, since the beginning of time). It is operated by CERN, the 20-nation European Organization for Nuclear Research. (The U.S., although we chipped in a cool $542 million to build it, does not have an official seat at the table – but there are more American scientists working on the LHC than those from any other country.)
So what is it? The LHC is a particle accelerator (stick with me, this is fascinating), and with it, scientists are hoping to recreate conditions that were present at the beginning of time.
Here is how it works, to the best of my understanding. (Science was actually my worst subject in school, so I’ll make this quick and easy.)
We all know about atoms, those basic units of matter, and how they are comprised of electrons, neutrons, and protons. (And protons and neutrons are composed of even smaller particles, called quarks.) Within the LHC complex, physicists strip electrons from atoms, creating what are called “free protons.”
Two of these protons at a time are beamed into the huge particle accelerator from opposite sides. They are sent around at faster and faster speeds and then, when they reach their maximum speed (more on that in a moment), they are forced to collide. (The first collision of this type took place on March 29, 2010.)
And that’s pretty much it. That’s what this gargantuan, expensive ($9 billion) machine does.
So why have roughly half (7200) of all the particle physicists in the world devoted themselves to this project? According to them, the only way to fill in gaps in our understanding of the “standard model” of particle physics (the building blocks of the universe) is with experimental data. They hope to examine the matter that is created by these “big bang” collisions and learn more about: dark energy; dark matter (which makes up a stunning 96% of the universe); extra dimensions; and, of course, they are hoping to either prove or disprove the hypothetical “Higgs Boson” (which I am not going to go into here.)
Okay, I’m done. Told you it would be quick.
Here are a few fun facts, though, and you may want to be sitting down when you read these:
- A single magnet in just one of the stations positioned around the LHC has a magnetic field 100,000 times as strong as Earth’s.
- The LHC’s magnets must be chilled to a temperature of –271 degrees Celsius – which is one degree colder than deep outer space. Thus, somewhere in the bowels of this machine lies the coldest place in the universe.
- Each proton goes around the entire 17-mile ring an impossible 11,000 times per second. This is 99.999999% of the speed of light. (It is impossible for matter to reach the speed of light – this is about as close as we can get.)
If you are a total nerd like me, and you need to know more, click here to read the excellent article “The Genesis 2.0 Project” from the January 2010 issue of Vanity Fair, which is where I first learned about this.
Click here to see pictures of this amazing machine.
And here is the very chipper, official website for the LHC, which is surprisingly easy to navigate, surprisingly low-tech (I guess they have better things to do than create flashy graphics), and which is written by endearingly enthusiastic people who use lots of exclamation points. As well they should.
(Lastly, I don’t have room in this post to debate the merits or morality of this endeavor, from a resources standpoint. I am probably sympathetic to both camps, pro and con. But as always, you’re more than welcome to leave a comment…)
10 thoughts on “The L.H.C. (Wait…we can DO that?)”
Your a closeted science geek 🙂
I don’t think I’m closeted, any more! 🙂 Love you.
that’s so fascinating – i’m going to share this with jamal (who teaches physics) and my cousin, chad, who is a something or other with a company like this in new york. they will understand, so much more, the details and really enjoy the reading!
p.s.-you’re so smart! 🙂
Thanks for spreading the word! Learning stuff like this is one of my favorite things on earth. I love to have my mind blown.
Cool stuff, Cathy!
I love the theoretical discussions about dark matter, extra dimensions and the like… I’ll have to check out the ‘Higgs Boson’ theory and see what that’s about!
BTW, not to start a debate, but a couple of the facts you mentioned are some of those where I go “and just how do they know that?” For instance, how can anyone know for sure that deep space is at -270? Not saying it’s not, but there’s a lot of assumptions about how it all works that would have to hold true to state that as fact….. just sayin’!
Very interesting stuff! And a huge machine…..
Thanks Dan! I don’t know how they figure any of this amazing stuff out…most of it is so incredible, it sounds made-up to me. 🙂
There is some very technical info on wiki, but here is a pretty good, easy explanation of the temperature thing. http://www.astronomyexpert.co.uk/space-what-average-temperature.html
I’m a person of faith. I’d like to think that shapes and colors everything I do. But I’m probably kidding myself. Sometimes the things I do shape and color my faith, usually darkly.
So having said that, I guess what I mean is that my opinions come with a grain of salt.
I’m also a person of science. At least, I’d like to think I am. I tried reading a book about faith and science once. It was by some Christian physicist from Britain. I couldn’t understand a word of it, either because his physics was way beyond me, or he wrote in a seriously thick accent. So I gave up on that.
But still, I have to say that I’m never threatened when scientists discover some new, great, ominous truth about the universe in which we find ourselves. It doesn’t tend to undermine my faith, and I sure don’t think God’s sitting up there, indifferent, and suddenly reading the news and saying, “Wow! Subatomic particles are made of quarks? I had no idea!”
I’m actually more scared of fundamentalists who disregard the beauty of science far more than I am of anything science may throw our way. To quote Contact (at least the movie–can’t remember if this line was in the book), “As a person of faith I’m bound by a different covenant than [a scientist]. But our goal is one and the same: the pursuit of Truth.”
Abso-freaking-lutely, Jeff! My viewpoint precisely. I am completely fascinated by science, especially space, and the more I learn, the more I want to learn.
I CHOOSE to believe in Christ, although I can’t prove Him. Science and faith are absolutely compatible, in my mind. I don’t know if you follow Cerebral Grump, but he had a good post about how Christians should know whereof they speak.
I will never, ever have an objection to scientific research from a morality standpoint (as far as, “this undermines God, we shouldn’t do it.”) I can see how people could object from a RESOURCES standpoint: could say that that kind of money should be used to feed people, etc. But I have such a thirst for knowledge…I can understand why scientists want to know what’s out there. Because I want to know what’s out there. Sometimes I wish I’d been born 100 years from now, so I could go to another planet. 🙂
Also? Still making me laugh.
[…] (I know: Sounds Ridiculous. That speed is impossible to wrap your mind around. Astonishingly enough, humans have been able to make matter move at very, very close to that speed, in the Large Hadron Collider – about which I’ve previously blogged, here.) […]